What is CBD and what is this ‘Entourage Effect’
A beginner's guide to Cannabidiol & the Entourage Effect
CBD has become incredibly prevalent in our country but remains an unregulated substance, so it is important to source your Cannabidiol with care. Below we’ll discuss what Cannabidiol is, its medical applications, and how to ensure that it has been correctly sourced.
Cannabidiol or CBD is one of the many cannabinoids produced by cannabis and hemp plants, and is the second most abundant after THC. The discovery in 2009 started a world-wide phenomenon as consumers sought its non-psychoactive benefits. It has since been learned that not only does C B D not produce a high, but it can actually reduce the psycho-activity caused by THC as well!
CANNABIS VS. HEMP
Did you know that the only difference between hemp and cannabis is the levels of THC and CBD the plant expresses? Hemp plants that are high in CBD will still naturally express themselves with trace levels of THC. These plants can still be considered hemp and will not produce a high in most people. That being said, trace amounts of THC may be high enough to trigger a drug test. Products that contain all of the plant’s cannabinoids, fats, and lipids are called Full Extract Cannabis Oils (or FECO) and offer a fuller wellness experience, as discussed below.
The Entourage Effect
Isolates vs. Full Spectrum
Scientists immediately began isolating the CBD molecule away from the THC and creating products called CBD Isolates. These were specifically designed for people who are looking to take advantage of the benefits of CBD, but whose medication would not interact well with THC or who required drug tests for work.
All of the research done comparing full-spectrum CBD to CBD isolates shows that the isolated version is much less effective. Scientists dubbed this the ‘Entourage Effect’, as the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Research shows us that the sub-cannabinoids, terpenes, lipids, and fats all play necessary roles in connecting the CBD we ingest to the receptors within the body where it does its best work.
When CBD enters the body it bonds with our endocannabinoid system and encourages the natural production of endocannabinoids that are already present in our system! Cannabidiol also has the unique ability to also interact with our dopamine, opioid, and serotonin receptors!
On a cellular level CBD allows our body’s cells to better communicate with each other. This is why we see such a large list of possible benefits when it comes to this cannabinoid. Consumers have reported assistance with anxiety, pain, sleep, epileptic seizures, addiction, depression, and cancer, just to list a few. If you are interested in learning more about how CBD can benefit these issues we have provided some links below to research studies.
Why Sourcing your CBD is important
In 2019 the I-team at NBC purchased and tested CBD products from all over New York City and found alarming results. Some of the products were high in heavy metals like lead, and some failed California’s Quality Control Standard laboratory testing for being too high in pesticides and toxins.
A more recent report from Forbes discusses a 2021 study showing that 25% of CBD products are not tested for purity. Since its discovery in 2009, CBD has remained an unregulated substance in the United States. This means that anyone can slap the word (CBD) on a bottle and sell it to you as Cannabidiol – even if it’s not.
How to Source
In 2019, the Oregon Liquor and Cannabis Commission enacted a law that required all . C B D products sold in Oregon dispensaries to be fully tested and sourced through their division. This helps to assure that a product’s label accurately represents the amount of C B D and THC found within the container.
When trying to source a C B D product, look at the box or the bottle. There should be a clear label there providing you with the test results. Laboratory information should also be available there for you to be able to confirm that the test results you see are accurate. If you do not see this information on your label that is a huge red flag.
When in doubt you should always feel free to reach out to their manufacturer. If they can’t answer the questions you have, don’t settle for the product. There are plenty of wonderful and legitimate companies out there making healthful products. We will put links below to some of our favorite brands that we’ve vetted and are available nationally.
Each cannabinoid occurs in different levels within different plants and can interact with each person uniquely depending on the synergy of cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant in combination with how your body produces and reacts to them. Learning about the uses of each cannabinoid can greatly increase your success with using cannabis as a medication. Your budtender can be an excellent tool in helping direct you to the strains and intake methods that are right for you. We only offer Full-Spectrum C B D Products in our store- you can check out our menu here to see what we have available by using the search feature.
C B D is non-psychoactive on it’s own, and has the ability to mitigate the high experienced with THC.
Cannabidiol and THC come from the same plant, expressing itself in different ways.
Full-Spectrum Cannabidiol products (containing trace levels of THC) have been shown to be more effective than products made from C B D Isolates.
It is incredibly important to source your C B D to ensure its quality.
Leafly’s: “What is C B D and What does this Cannabinoid do?” https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/what-is-cbd
Weedmaps’: “Cannabidiol” https://weedmaps.com/learn/dictionary/cbd
Weedmaps’: “C B D” https://weedmaps.com/learn/cbd
Weedmaps’: “What is C B D used for?” https://weedmaps.com/learn/cbd/what-is-cbd-used-for
High Times’: A Beginners Guide to C B D” https://hightimes.com/guides/a-beginners-guide-to-cbd/
Leafly’s: “How does C B D effect our body” https://www.leafly.com/news/cbd/what-does-cbd-do
Leafly’s “C B D holds promise for Childhood Epilepsy study finds” https://www.leafly.com/news/science-tech/cbd-holds-promise-as-child-epilepsy-treatment-studies-find
Leafly’s “Can C B D Show up in a Drug Test” https://www.leafly.com/news/cbd/does-cbd-show-up-drug-test
Leafly’s: “What kinds of Pain can Cannabidiol Treat” https://www.leafly.com/news/health/cbd-types-of-pain
Frontiers in Philosophy’s: “Axiolytic Effects of Repeated Cannabidiol Treatment in Teenages with Social Anxiety Disorders” https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02466/full
National Library of Medicine, Pub Med’s:
Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: a Large Case Study” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326553/
Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22483680/
What is CBN and what does it do?
A beginner's guide to Cannabinol
Often referred to as “The Couchlock Cannabinoid”, CBN (cannabinol) is present in all strains of cannabis and does not provide a high on its own. Although there hasn’t been much research on Canabinol’s sedating effects, one human study did look at this question and found that it may be the combination of CBN and THC that cause the sedative effect.
CBN is the final terpene produced by the cannabis plant and is created as THC degrades over time. For that reason you see the highest levels of CBN in older strains. For many years the best way to find and take advantage of Cannabinol was to seek out old flower, or to buy some new flower and wait. As research has advanced on the benefits of other cannabinoids, products made from rarer strains have been found to be high in this cannabinoid have begun to emerge on the market.
Research available is limited (as we are just beginning to study this cannabinoid in depth) but did begin in the 1970s! Very few studies show results for the human body, they are often preformed on mice, making the findings mostly theoretical right now. The only human study done was in the 1970s and pertained to its assistance with sleep. Most of what we have learned personally comes from customer feedback. What research does exists suggests possible aid for things like glaucoma, as an antibacterial, neuro-protective, and appetite stimulant. We have provided links to these research studies below so you can learn more.
THE COUCH-LOCK CANNABINOID
That first study in the 1970s led the way for this cannabinoid to become known as the “Couch-lock Cannabinoid”. While the sample group was small, none of the respondents reported that cannabinol made them tired.
So why does everyone say that it’s sedating?
“Pure Cannabinol is not particularly sedating,” Dr. Ethan Russo, Cannabis Researcher and Neurologist, “But it is typically found in aged cannabis in which the monoterpenoids have evaporated leaving the more sedating oxygenated sesquiterpenoids. This accounts for the discrepancy.”
In other words, that older weed that is boasting high levels of Cannabinol is also high in sedating terpenes. Researchers believe it is the effect of the terpenes rather than the CBN that creates the relaxing effect we find in aged cannabis. They have also suggested that accompanying it with THC is necessary to receive that sedative effect.
One misconception to be aware of is that not all high CBN products will be non-intoxicating, some are mixed with even balanced ratios of THC. While Cannabinol alone will not produce a high, it can actually increase euphoric effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. If you are looking to take advantage of CBN’s benefits without a high, make sure you are using products that don’t contain too much THC!
Each cannabinoid occurs in different levels within different plants and can interact with each person uniquely depending on the synergy of cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant in combination with how your body produces and reacts to them. Learning about the uses of each cannabinoid can greatly increase your success with using cannabis as a medication. Your budtender can be an excellent tool in helping direct you to the strains and intake methods that are right for you. We do offer CBN Products in our store- you can check out our menu here to see what we have available by using the search feature.
CBN is created at THC degrades over time (most commonly found in older weed)
Cannabinol does not produce a high on it’s own (much like CBD) but can increase euphoric tendencies of THC.
Studies have shown positive results with Cannabinol as an anticonvulsant, anti-biotic, neuroprotectant, appetite stimulator, and an anti-inflammatory.
Leafly’s, “What is CBN (cannabinol) and what are the benefits of this cannabinoid” https://www.leafly.com/news/science-tech/what-is-cbn-and-what-are-the-benefits-of-this-cannabinoid
Weedmaps, “The Difference between CBN vs CBD” https://weedmaps.com/learn/cbd/cbn-vs-cbd
High Times, “The Ultimate Guide to Cannabinoids in Cannabis” https://hightimes.com/guides/cannabinoids/
Weedmaps, “CBN, Definition” https://weedmaps.com/learn/dictionary/cannabinol-cbn
Science Directs, “CBN” https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/cannabinol
National Library of Medicine, PubMed:
Antibacterial Cannabinoids of Cannabis https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18681481/
CBN delays onset of ALS https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16183560/
CBN and CBD excerpt opposite effects on rat feeding patterns https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22543671/
Cannabinoids in Health & Disease https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3202504/
Cannabinoids, Inflammation & Fibrosis https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1096/fj.201600646r
Effects of delta9-tetrahydracannabinol and cannabinol in man https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1096/fj.201600646r