cannabinoids

You Are Here: Home / Archives / Tag / cannabinoids

THC- The Cannabinoid We Know Best

Categories: Tags:

What is THC, really?

THC - Terpene & Cannabinoid Education at Home Grown Apothecary

A beginner's guide to THC

We all are familiar with THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, but there is so much more to this cannabinoid than the sought after ‘high’ that it provides. So where did this magical cannabinoid come from, and medicinally speaking, why do people seek it out?

ORIGINS

THC was first isolated and synthesized by an Israeli chemist by Raphael Mechoulam in 1964. While cannabis has had its use for thousands of years (see cannabis history here), this dawned the era of revived enthusiasm in the medicinal potential of the cannabis plant. His research marked the beginning of our discovery of the endocannabinoid system and inspired more studies that would later unveil other unknown cannabinoids and sequesterpenes. This research continues today.

 

THC in the PLANT

When the cannabis plant is just a young start it consists primarily of CBG-A and as the plant develops, it slowly divides itself to become CBD-A and THC-A. As with all cannabinoids, their raw form will always contain the carbon element, or the “-A”. It is not until we combust, extract, or decarboxylate the plant that these molecules lose their carbon component and become “active”. 

Tetrahydrocannabinol is the only natural cannabinoid in the plant that provides a psycho-active effect, and the high is only provided by the decarboxylated molecule. In other words, a jar of weed by itself would not make you high if you ate it. The weed would have to be smoked, extracted, or baked first in order to produce the high. THC-A itself is non-psychoactive and many consumers seek it out to take advantage of the benefits of THC without the intoxication (*see “other ways to take advantage of THC without the high” below).

Over time, on the plant or on the shelf, THC will slowly degrade into CBN- which most consumers report to be quite sedating. When buying in bulk for THC usage- keep in mind that the THC will eventually become CBN- providing a different set of effects.

SOME SCIENCE

Have you heard of Anandamide? It’s THC that our body naturally creates daily! Tetrahydrocannabinol and Anandamide have identical chemical structures, and Anandamide plays the same role in our endo-cannabinoid system that THC does. While our body has a natural chemical to break down Anandamide as it is created in our system, it takes longer for it to break down its cannabis counterpart. This delay is what we know of as our “high”. Depending on how fast your body produces Anandamide, your psycho-active experience may be longer or shorter. When our endo-cannabinoid system is not functioning at its peak, supplementing with specific cannabinoids has shown to be effective in creating a homeostasis within our system.

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabinoid and Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary Photo by Space Face Media

THC is Recreational & CBD is Medical FALSEHOOD

We often hear that THC is Recreational and CBD is Medical, but this couldn’t be further from the truth. When cannabis was first legalized for its medical applications, it was due to the positive results that studies were seeing with THC for things like appetite stimulation, mood regulation, and pain management. When CBD was first discovered and people found they could potentially mitigate their pain without the psychoactivity, THC began to take a back seat. CBD and THC have both been shown to be helpful for chronic pain management, stress, anxiety, and depression, and there are ways to take advantage of the benefits of THC without the ‘high’ (see below to learn more). Every person is unique in what type or ratio of cannabis and hemp treatments they need. This is why it is important to consult your physician and be able to trust your budtender.

RESEARCH

THC has seen some positive results in studies focused on studying its effects on inflammation and pain relief, specifically for muscle and nerve pains or spasms. People not seeing success from CBD products may find that is due to the origin of their pain. Trying a higher THC product may be a better option for relief, while others may need to experiment with other sub-cannabinoids and terpenes to find the most effective combination. We cover this in more depth in the section below.

Researchers have also been studying how THC can help people to sleep through the night, especially when ingested and allowed to slowly digest. These are only the beginning, we have read some interesting studies pertaining to attention & eating disorders, cancers, PTSD, alzheimers, nausea, migraines, and so many more. Remember it is a combination of cannabinoids and terpenes in cannabis that give us our full effect. We have included some helpful links below for you to find more information on this research.

WEED ISN’T LIKE IT USED TO BE TRUTHHOOD

The average THC percentage in the 1970s was 1%, in the 80s that percentage went up to 2-5%, in the 90s you were most likely to find cannabis ranging from 5-8% and it wasn’t until the millennium that THC percentages made their way into the double digits. You can now find cannabis at your local store ranging from 1-40% THC. So when your Uncle tells you that the weed he used to smoke back in the day was nothing like what they got now-a-days; he isn’t kidding.

THC percentages in cannabis have increased dramatically over the last few decades, and at some point there has to be a limit. The THC percentage refers to the percentage of the plant that is made up of crystals. If a strain is testing at 20% THC that means that the other 80% is made up of other cannabinoids, terpenes, leaves, stems, and fibers; the actual plant! It is reasonable to assume that if THC percentages that were found during the days of flower power were lower, then other cannabinoids and terpenes may have been higher in its place. We have also seen a lot of studies about the inaccuracy of testing, and since terpenes and cannabinoids are really what produce your effect, number hunting is an ineffective way to search for cannabis.

WILL I GET HIGH FROM A THC TOPICAL

Did you know that there is no potential for a ‘high’ when THC is rubbed onto your body unless it gets into your eyes, ears, nose, mouth or private areas (mucous membranes)**. Wash your hands when you’ve completed the application or allow it to soak in fully before touching any of these sensitive areas. Because lubricants are applied to mucous membranes, they could potentially cause a high sensation. If a potential drug test is a concern, please know that THC topicals may flag a drug test.

**THC Trans-dermal patches do have a psycho-active potential no matter where they are placed on the body. We have also seen one transdermal roller that has this listed as a possibility.

Other ways to try THC without the High

For those wanting to take advantage of THC, but not wanting the high, keep a look out for THC-A products. This is the non-psychoactive counterpart of THC that we talked about before. All Cannabis contains THC-A, which has no potential to give you a high unless lit on fire or extracted’. When you decarboxylate cannabis in the oven before baking it, make a tincture in oil or alcohol, or you smoke a bowl- the Carbon molecule (or the -A) is dropped and it now contains the ability to provide a high. THC-A dominant  products are rare as it is an emerging field, and creating products that remain shelf stable as THC-A without eventually naturally decarboxylating is difficult. We hope they will become more available as research continues.

PRACTICAL USE

Each cannabinoid occurs in different levels within different plants and can interact with each person uniquely depending on the synergy of cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant in combination with how your body produces and reacts to them. Learning about the uses of each cannabinoid can greatly increase your success with using cannabis as a medication. Your budtender can be an excellent tool in helping direct you to the strains and intake methods that are right for you. We only offer a large range of CBD and THC products in our store- you can check out our menu here to see what we have available by using the search feature.

In summary

THC was first isolated in 1964

In the cannabis plant THC comes from CBG and will slowly turn into CBN

THC is recreational and CBD is medical is a falsehood. Both have potential medical applications.

THC-A provides the benefits of THC without the high, but can be difficult to source cleanly.

THC Topicals will not make you high unless applied to a mucous membrane.

Sourcing

Leafly’s “What is T H C”, https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/what-is-tetrahydrocannabinol

High Times’ “What is Tetrahydrocannabinol and what does it do?” https://hightimes.com/health/science/thc-tetrahydrocannabinol/

High Times’ “The Ultimate Guide to Cannabinoids in Cannabis” https://hightimes.com/guides/cannabinoids/

Weedmaps’ “What is Tetrahydrocannabinol?” https://weedmaps.com/learn/dictionary/tetrahydrocannabinol-thc

National Library of Medicine Articles:

“Tetrahydrocannabinol- THC”, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563174/#:~:text=Delta%2D9%2Dtetrahydrocannabinol%20(THC,in%20exploring%20its%20medical%20utility.

Amy Alexander, Paul F. Smith, Rhonda J. Rosengren,
Cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer, Cancer Letters, Volume 285, Issue 1, 2009, Pages 6-12, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304383509002523?via%3Dihub

“Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base” Institute of Medicine (US); Joy JE, Watson SJ Jr., Benson JA Jr., editors.

“Living Systematic Review on Cannabis and Other Plant-Based Treatments for Chronic Pain [Internet].” McDonagh MS, Wagner J, Ahmed AY, et al. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2021 Oct. (Comparative Effectiveness Review, No. 250.) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK575762/?term=tetrahydrocannabinol

Cannabis Growing Tips

Categories: Tags:

Cannabis Growing Tips straight from our Clone Grower, Tyler

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media

A beginner's guide to Growing Cannabis

Spring is here and it’s time to start getting your garden spaces ready! We got together with Paragon Farms (who starts our clones) to compile a list of tips to ensure a healthy plant and successful harvest!

OVERVIEW

Everyone thinks they know the best way to grow cannabis when the truth is, there are a lot of right answers. Types of soil, nutrients, light, and care can all result in incredibly different plants, but at the end of the day- it is called weed for a reason. It is easy to grow, but can be difficult to grow well. Here are a few tips and tricks from Tyler of Paragon Farms to get you started in the right direction.

The fine folks over at Bloom Garden Center in Portland, Oregon are also a wealth of knowledge when it comes to cannabis plants. If you are looking for any extra tips or advice, we recommend a visit to grab your nutrients and ask some questions!

Below we have added links to two of our favorite Cannabis Growing Bibles by Jorge Cervantes, and by Ed Rosenthal: icons in the cannabis industry. When you are ready to take your cultivation to the next level, these books will be an excellent resource!

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media

Growing from Seed?

Green Source Gardens has some excellent resources available to start and care for your seeds. Check it out!

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
When to transplant clones
Clones at Home Grown Apothecary!
Cannabinoid and Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary Photo by Space Face Media
Clones from Home Grown Apothecary and Paragon Farms

TRANSPLANTING

  • Water the Day Before

    I try and water my clones the day before I transplant and not the day of. Then, I will water the day after I transplant. I believe this small step helps the root system stretch/surge in the new medium searching for water (I only do this when I mix my transplant soil with some water and food in it).

  • Make sure your New Soil is Moist

    Try to add water to your new soil/medium and mix well. My general rule here is if I clench a fistful of soil and let go it should hold that form for a few seconds. This lets me know there’s enough water in the soil, but not too much. If I do the “clench test” and feel the water leaching out of the soil and into my hand, then the medium is over-saturated. Overwatering will slow physical growth drastically.

  • pH your Water

    If you can, always pH your water. Especially since city water is always off and tends to burn plants. Best pH for soil is 6.0-6.7. Coco or fiber mix is 5.5-5.8.
  • When can I put my Plants Outside?

    Watch the night time low temperatures, not the daytime highs. Although humidity can play a factor here, the night time lows will drastically slow down the vigor of your plants. I shoot for night time temps at 45° F. Once I see there aren’t any more “cold snaps”- we’re good to go. This will help them spend less energy on combating conditions and more energy on their health and growth (roots and immune system). I see people plant too early every year then spend half of their summer nursing them back to health. Better to plant late than early, that’s for sure.

  • Minimize Transplanting

    Try to minimize the amount of times you transplant your plants. Three times is usually enough to get them to their flower size pot or hole.

  • Choose your Soil Medium

    Choosing your soil medium is a very personal decision. The choices are endless but there are a few tried and true favorites. Our favorite is Live or Living Soil, but you could also choose Cocoa Fibers, Hydroponics, Aeroponics, or some combination of these.

  • Choosing your Nutrients

    Each strain requires different nutrients. You can research what other growers have said about the demands of the strain you are growing, or you can keep an eye on the leaves and add nutrients accordingly as the plant shows you what it needs. The folks over at Bloom can be helpful here to help find the right nutrient regiment. They were the first garden store to specialize in cannabis growing in Portland. There are also some great resources online to help you deduce what your plant is trying to tell you. Your plant will speak to you with its leaves.

GENERAL CARE

  • Supporting your Plants

    When training/supporting it’s always best to get those stakes, t-posts, or trellis netting (whatever you’re using) in place early on and let them grow into it. This is significantly easier than trying to work them in around an oversized plant.

  • Top your Plants

    Pinching off the top growth on our plant will encourage lower growth, as well as increase budding sites and yields.

  • Strip your Lower Foliage

    Strip all lower foliage late in veg and again at early signs of flower. This will help with air flow through the plant and help it focus its energy on flower production. Remember you’re trying to grow weed not leaves!

  • Less is More- Troubleshooting

    Always remember less is more. If there are issues with your plants and you can’t seem to figure it out, then strip everything back and start with the basics regarding feeding and treatment. This means watering with plain ph’d water, no additives or other food, then slowly adding your base NPK’s and working your way up from there. Same goes for foliar sprays and brewing teas. Each time you step up it will be much easier to pinpoint your issue or mistake.

  • Garden Pests

    There really is no way around it, some unwanted insect friends are bound to find their way into your haven. While some of these bugs can be beneficial in keeping harmful pests away, there are some mites and beetles that are best kept out of the garden. How do we do this organically and safely? Some tried and true methods include adding beneficial insects like Ladybugs and Praying Mantis, or misting with Organic Neem Oil, Cinnamon Oil, Peppermint Oil, and/or Rosemary Oil. All of these have been used individually by different growers to combat pests, but do not spray them on an actual flower- these remedies are for the leaves, stalks, and soil. Remember to never mist your plants when they will be receiving direct sunlight while still wet as this can burn the leaves. We recommend evening as the best time.

JUICING

Juicing cannabis is one of the best ways to take advantage of the natural subcannabinoids that the plant produces, like CBG, as well as take advantage of the benefits of THC with little-to-no-high. Since you will be removing large fan leaves in order to increase flower production, this is a great time to experiment with the benefits of fresh leaf juicing! We recommend adding to your smoothie. You won’t need much- the leaf can be bitter so go easy on it to start. The more resinous the leaf, the more cannabinoids it will carry.

Clones from Home Grown Apothecary and Paragon Farms

Just because you have the same genetics as someone else doesn’t mean your going to have the same results!

Every element to every environment will be different to some degree. And let’s face it, some people grow better weed than others for any number of reasons. Don’t expect your flower to look, smoke, or smell the same as someone else’s does.

Approximate Timeline

 

  • Plants are put in the ground in Mid-April in the Portland Area, weather depending.

  • Mid-August marks the time when we expect to start seeing our first calyx and buds appear.

  • Buds begin to grow, remember to keep that leafy foliage trimmed back.

  • Croptober, or October is normally when we start looking into harvesting our flowers.

Harvesting

Growth times can vary by strain and by geography, however, generally indica strains will flower in 50-60 days and sativa strains will flower in 60-70 days. Because each strain is unique these are generalities and not rules, some sativas can finish more quickly and some indicas can take longer to grow.

Harvesting cannabis at just the right moment helps to maximize the terpene and resin potential of the plant. If you harvest too early and you sacrifice some of that production. Similarly, if you harvest too late, the THC crystals can degrade into CBN (the cannabinoid that puts the plant to sleep), reducing the potential of psycho-activity in the plant.

  • Curing

    When harvesting, try and have a space designated for your branches to hang and dry. The cleaner and darker the space the better.
  • Remove Large Leaves

    I try and remove about 80% of the fan leaves as I’m harvesting so they stay in the field and not in the cure room. Remember we are growing weed, not leaves! Some leaves are important in the cure process as they caccoon the buds and help protect them from things in the air but the majority of the yellowed crispy leaves can head straight to compost.

  • Save Your Trim

    Once you get to the trimming process we recommend keeping it tight, but not to the point of sacrificing trichomes. Remember to save that trim as it can be used to make edibles, RSO, hash, dabs…pretty much anything!

When you are ready to Harvest your Plant,

Check out our post with Cannabis Harvesting Tips & Tricks!

In Summary

pH your water, and keep well hydrated but not soaked.

Minimize the number of times you transplant your cannabis plant as it stresses out the plant.

Top Your Plants, to encourage lower, bushier growth. Removing large and excess leaves, as well as all lower leaves can also encourage larger buds. We’re growing weed not leaves.

Less is more-  if you run into any issues, return to just water for a short time and then slowly reintroduce your NPKs.

There are many organic pest control methods to try, but never spray on plants while in direct sunlight.

CBG (Cannabigeral)- The Mother Cannabinoid

Categories: Tags:

What is CBG and why is it the Mother Cannabinoid?

CBG Cannabinoid

A beginner's guide to Cannabidiol & the Entourage Effect

CBG, or Cannabigerol, is the precursor to all other cannabinoids including THC and CBD. This means that plants in the early stages of development have the highest quantities and as the plant grows the CBG levels lower and other Cannabinoids take its place. However, it is found in all cannabis strains in low levels, and provides no high to the consumer on its own.

ORIGINS

CBG was originally discovered in 1965 by scientists working with hashish. This lead researchers to believe it was a constituent of hash until 1975, when researchers found that the acid form of Cannabigerol (CBGA) occurs naturally as the first cannabinoid to form in a new cannabis plant. Over time the Cannabinoid converts itself into the THC and CBD molecules the plant is best known for today. For this reason it has been dubbed “The Mother Cannabinoid”.

While we once believed that young cannabis plants were the best source for finding Cannabigerol, we have learned in more recent years that CBG converts into THC or CBD relatively quickly in the development process. This means that the best way to find Cannabigerol is to find strains that are known for being high in this cannabinoid. They are rare but they are out there.

SCIENCE

Keep in mind as we delve into some of the science behind each cannabinoid that research on cannabinoids are always done in isolation. The effect of a cannabis or hemp plant on a person will always be the result of hundreds of cannabinoids and terpenes working in conjunction, and will vary from person to person.

In a 2015 study, researchers found that CBG could be helpful for IBS, Huntingtons Disease, and as a potential neuron protector for ailments like Parkinsons Disease. Some studies with mice have also had positive results for colon cancer.

European studies have had positive results with the cannabinoid as an anti-bacterial (specifically staphylococcus), as an appetite stimulant, an analgesic, for cachexia (late stage cancer), issues with bladder/muscle contracts & dysfunctions, and psoriasis- but we will know more when research is complete.

The most common review seen for Cannabigerol is for its help with anxiety, stress relief, and depression. Researchers are currently examining the effects of CBG on PTSD and OCD, but we will know more when research is complete.

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabinoid and Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary Photo by Space Face Media

HOW TO FIND CBG

Because we have only been able to research the cannabis plant more thoroughly in recent years, Cannabigerol is a relatively new cannabinoid to the cannabis market. That being said, products that are high in Cannabigerol are finally beginning to emerge. East Fork Cultivars recently released their new “The White C B G” flower, which we are proud to have on our shelves at the time of writing this article.

Companies like Mr. Moxey’s Mints, Sun God Medicinals, and Peak Extracts Chocolates have begun to incorporate sub-cannabinoids like Cannabigerol and CBN into their edibles, and Farmer’s Friend Extracts has cartridges and tinctures that feature these cannabinoids heavily. And this is just the beginning- keep your eyes peeled and ask your budtenders about new cannabinoids you are seeing on the shelf!

PRACTICAL USE

Each cannabinoid occurs in different levels within different plants and can interact with each person uniquely depending on the synergy of cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant in combination with how your body produces and reacts to them. Learning about the uses of each cannabinoid can greatly increase your success with using cannabis as a medication. Your budtender can be an excellent tool in helping direct you to the strains and intake methods that are right for you. We only offer Full-Spectrum CBG Products in our store- you can check out our menu here to see what we have available by using the search feature.

In summary

C B G is non-psychoactive on its own, but the effect of cannabis is the result of 100s of cannabinoids and terpenes working in conjunction.

Cannabigerol is the first cannabinoid the cannabis plant makes, but converts to THC and CBD relatively quickly in the cannabis plant.

While research is ongoing, Cannabigerol has shown to have a multitude of potential medical applications.

C B G is newly emerging on the cannabis market, and may be hard to find in flower form but many companies have started to incorporate it into their tinctures, edibles, and cartridges already.

Sourcing

Leafly’s “What is C B G”, https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/what-is-cbg-cannabinoid

Leafly’s “Is Cannabigerol better than CBD or THC for pain, inflammation, and aging”, https://www.leafly.com/news/strains-products/is-cbg-better-than-cbd-thc-for-pain-inflammation-aging

Weedmaps’ “What is Cannabigerol”, https://weedmaps.com/learn/dictionary/cannabigerol-cbg

Weedmaps’ “CBG vs. CBD: What’s the difference?” https://weedmaps.com/learn/cbd/cbg-vs-cbd

Weedmaps’ “What is CBG? The Minor Cannabinoid with Major Potential” https://weedmaps.com/news/2019/08/what-is-cbg/

Weedmaps’ “What is CBG Oil?” https://weedmaps.com/learn/dictionary/cbg-oil

High Times’ “What is Cannabigerol?” https://hightimes.com/health/science/grow-hack-what-is-cannabigerol-cbg/

High Times’ “Grow Hack: What is Cannabigerol?” https://hightimes.com/health/science/grow-hack-what-is-cannabigerol-cbg/

High Times’ “Learn which Rare Cannabinoid is Best” https://hightimes.com/news/learn-which-rare-cannabinoid-is-best/

High Times’ “The Next Generation of Medicinal Cannabis: CB G” https://hightimes.com/culture/the-next-generation-of-medicinal-cannabis-high-cbg-strains/

High Times’ “CB G & THC-V: The Next Big Cannaboids” https://hightimes.com/sponsored/cbg-thcv-the-next-big-cannabinoids/

High Times’ “The Ultimate Guide to Cannabinoids in Cannabis” https://hightimes.com/guides/cannabinoids/

National Library of Medicine Articles:

Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid”,  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25269802/

Borrelli F, Pagano E, Romano B, Panzera S, Maiello F, Coppola D, De Petrocellis L, Buono L, Orlando P, Izzo AA. Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Dec;35(12):2787-97. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu205. Epub 2014 Sep 30. PMID: 25269802.

“In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation : Efficacy of Cannabigerol , a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29986533/

“Chemotherapy‐induced cachexia dysregulates hypothalamic and systemic lipoamines and is attenuated by cannabigerol” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6711413/

“Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat CTX-TNA2 Astrocytes and Isolated Cortexes” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279038/

“Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4322067/

“Cannabigerol is a novel, well-tolerated appetite stimulant in pre-satiated rats” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5021742/

“Effect of Non-psychotropic Plant-derived Cannabinoids on Bladder Contractility: Focus on Cannabigerol ” https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1934578X1501000653

“Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease”  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295213000543

Development and Modification of Bioactivity” Arno Hazekamp, … Renee L. Ruhaak, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010

“Survey of Patients Employing Cannabigerol-Predominant Cannabis Preparations: Perceived Medical Effects, Adverse Events, and Withdrawal Symptoms” https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2021.0058

Cannabis Harvesting Tips

Categories: Tags:

Happy Croptober! Let’s dig into some Cannabis Harvesting Tips:

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media

A beginner's guide to Harvesting Cannabis

It’s, October and it’s time to start deciding when to take down your cannabis plants. Many of you who purchased clones from us were first time growers, so we wanted to share a few tips with you to boost terpene production, ensure you harvest at the “golden moment”, and how to dry and cure!

HARVESTING CANNABIS

Growth times can vary by strain and by geography, however generally indica strains will flower in 50-60 days and sativa strains will flower in 60-70 days. Because each strain is unique these are generalities and not rules, some sativas can finish more quickly and some indicas can take longer to grow.

Harvesting cannabis at just the right moment helps to maximize the terpene and resin potential of the plant. If you harvest too early you sacrifice some of that production. Similarly if you harvest too late, the THC crystals can degrade into CBN (the cannabinoid that puts the plant to sleep), reducing the potential of psycho-activity in the plant. Due to the fact that we are in Oregon, we are sometimes forced to harvest cannabis in mid-October due to oncoming rains and mold prevention- but we do what we gotta do.

With so many variables that equate to a proper harvest time there are a few tricks to finding what we in the cannabis industry refer to as the “Golden Moment”. Every strain will represent its maturity differently and at different times so treat each strain you grow uniquely. Now let’s get out your magnifying glasses and let’s take a peak at some helpful hints:

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabinoid and Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media

GOLDEN MOMENT

  • Monitor Your Trichomes

    Also known as Pistols, they will begin clear and slowly change to a milky white and then to a shade of amber. The amber is not always present and is highly strain dependent so do not rely on this aspect solely. If you do not see the amber, continue to check using the following methods before deciding to wait for harvest.

  • Monitor Your Stigma

    These are the hair like features on the flower. While the plant is growing they will be white and as the plant comes closer to maturity, they turn to a darker and darker shade of orange/red (or sometimes purple depending on the strain!)

  • Keep One Eye on the Gland Heads

    These can be found at the top of the Trichome or Pistol. Within this magical ball can be found your terpenes and cannabinoids. As the plant matures, the glands will swell. We tend to keep an eye on them in the final few weeks. Once we see the first one or two pop we know the rest are also at their maximum potential and do our harvest.

  • Keep Your Other Eye on the Skies

    And on the weather forecast. If you are growing outdoors, make sure to harvest your plants before any large rainfall soaks your flowers or get them under cover. These are prime conditions for mold once you get to the drying and curing process and are best avoided.

WET TRIM VS DRY TRIM

Now is the time to decide if you are going to trim your cannabis wet or dry if you haven’t already. Trimming wet not only allows the flowers to cure more quickly, but the added air circulation also minimizes the risk of mold occurring during the drying process. Wet trimming is the go-to method for most people in the industry because having the leaves being alert and horizontal makes the trimming process much quicker.

The reason someone may choose to dry their harvest prior to trimming is to preserve cannabinoid and terpene exactness. A true cannabis connoisseur will choose the slower method of waiting for the flower to dry before harvest and taking the extra time to trim. Some studies have shown that up to 30% of terpenes can evaporate in the first week of drying!

DRYING

Hang your branches in a well ventilated and dry area and monitor closely. Some people have hung rope or twine lines in their homes or garage, others use hangers. Make sure there is enough spacing between branches for air to flow freely.

It does not take too long for cannabis to dry out, maybe 3-14 days depending on humidity, temperature and how you trimmed. Over-drying your cannabis will cause resin glands to shrink up and burst, losing potency or cannabinoids and terpenes as well as making for a harsher smoke on the throat. Making sure to pull your buds down and put it in a air-tight jar with some preservation packs is going to be important. Be sure to check your flower more frequently as time passes to make sure you do not over dry it.

Your plant will be done drying when the branch is no longer rubbery but doesn’t quite break when you bend it.

CURING

This is a rather simple step. Place your trimmed and dried flower into your storage container (reference below). Curing is accomplished by “burping” or opening the jar for short periods of time every few days over the period of about 7-10 days.

STORAGE

GLASS.

GLASS. GLASS. GLASS.

Anything airtight will do the job but there is a risk of plastics absorbing your terpenes and cannabinoids and are okay for temporary storage but for long term storage nothing competes with a classic mason jar.

Also we couldn’t recommend Boveda Moisure Control Packs more highly. The Moisture % we would recommend for cannabis is 62%. They are available online.

TRIMMING TRICKS

 

  • The resin on your fingers and scissors is considered like gold in some places- Ball it up and top your pipe with it!

  • Sticky Residue Removal: A little coconut oil will take that right off!

  • Remove as few crystals and hairs as possible, that is where all the good stuff is.

  • Wash your scissors frequently. We keep a small tub of isopropyl 99% nearby and have two sets of scissors and alternate between them, keeping one constantly at the ready. Remember to save that hash first!

  • Wear old clothes that you don’t care if get dirty.

In summary

Harvesting Cannabis at its “Golden Moment” will increase cannabinoid and terpene yields.

Wet trimming can be faster and easier while Dry trimming preserves more cannabinoids and terpenes.

When curing, make sure your plants have sufficient room for airflow.

Store you cannabis in glass whenever possible.

Sourcing

Leafly’s “When to Harvest Marijuana Plants”,
Cannabis Business Times’ “10 Cannabis Harvesting & Post-Harvest Tips”,
High Times “Pro Guide to Cannabis Harvesting”
High Times’ “Key Points to Harvest Time”,
High Times’ “The Connoisseurs Guide to Harvesting Weed Plants”,
Weedmaps’ “When to Harvest Cannabis: Tips”
Weedmaps’ “How to Harvest, Trim, Dry, & Cure your Weed.”

CBD (cannabidol) & The Entourage Effect

Categories: Tags:

What is CBD and what is this ‘Entourage Effect’

A beginner's guide to Cannabidiol & the Entourage Effect

CBD has become incredibly prevalent in our country but remains an unregulated substance, so it is important to source your Cannabidiol with care. Below we’ll discuss what Cannabidiol is, its medical applications, and how to ensure that it has been correctly sourced.

ORIGINS

Cannabidiol or CBD is one of the many cannabinoids produced by cannabis and hemp plants, and is the second most abundant after THC. The discovery in 2009 started a world-wide phenomenon as consumers sought its non-psychoactive benefits. It has since been learned that not only does C B D not produce a high, but it can actually reduce the psycho-activity caused by THC as well!

CANNABIS VS. HEMP

Did you know that the only difference between hemp and cannabis is the levels of THC and CBD the plant expresses? Hemp plants that are high in CBD will still naturally express themselves with trace levels of THC. These plants can still be considered hemp and will not produce a high in most people. That being said, trace amounts of THC may be high enough to trigger a drug test. Products that contain all of the plant’s cannabinoids, fats, and lipids are called Full Extract Cannabis Oils (or FECO) and offer a fuller wellness experience, as discussed below.

The Entourage Effect

Isolates vs. Full Spectrum

Scientists immediately began isolating the CBD molecule away from the THC and creating products called CBD Isolates. These were specifically designed for people who are looking to take advantage of the benefits of CBD, but whose medication would not interact well with THC or who required drug tests for work.

All of the research done comparing full-spectrum CBD to CBD isolates shows that the isolated version is much less effective. Scientists dubbed this the ‘Entourage Effect’, as the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Research shows us that the sub-cannabinoids, terpenes, lipids, and fats all play necessary roles in connecting the CBD we ingest to the receptors within the body where it does its best work.

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabinoid and Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary Photo by Space Face Media

SCIENCE

When CBD enters the body it bonds with our endocannabinoid system and encourages the natural production of endocannabinoids that are already present in our system! Cannabidiol also has the unique ability to also interact with our dopamine, opioid, and serotonin receptors!

On a cellular level CBD allows our body’s cells to better communicate with each other. This is why we see such a large list of possible benefits when it comes to this cannabinoid. Consumers have reported assistance with anxiety, pain, sleep, epileptic seizures, addiction, depression, and cancer, just to list a few. If you are interested in learning more about how CBD can benefit these issues we have provided some links below to research studies.

SNAKE OIL

Why Sourcing your CBD is important

In 2019 the I-team at NBC purchased and tested CBD products from all over New York City and found alarming results. Some of the products were high in heavy metals like lead, and some failed California’s Quality Control Standard laboratory testing for being too high in pesticides and toxins.

A more recent report from Forbes discusses a 2021 study showing that 25% of CBD products are not tested for purity. Since its discovery in 2009, CBD has remained an unregulated substance in the United States. This means that anyone can slap the word (CBD) on a bottle and sell it to you as Cannabidiol – even if it’s not.

How to Source

In 2019, the Oregon Liquor and Cannabis Commission enacted a law that required all . C B D products sold in Oregon dispensaries to be fully tested and sourced through their division. This helps to assure that a product’s label accurately represents the amount of C B D and THC found within the container.

When trying to source a C B D product, look at the box or the bottle. There should be a clear label there providing you with the test results. Laboratory information should also be available there for you to be able to confirm that the test results you see are accurate. If you do not see this information on your label that is a huge red flag.

When in doubt you should always feel free to reach out to their manufacturer. If they can’t answer the questions you have, don’t settle for the product. There are plenty of wonderful and legitimate companies out there making healthful products. We will put links below to some of our favorite brands that we’ve vetted and are available nationally.

PRACTICAL USE

Each cannabinoid occurs in different levels within different plants and can interact with each person uniquely depending on the synergy of cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant in combination with how your body produces and reacts to them. Learning about the uses of each cannabinoid can greatly increase your success with using cannabis as a medication. Your budtender can be an excellent tool in helping direct you to the strains and intake methods that are right for you. We only offer Full-Spectrum C B D Products in our store- you can check out our menu here to see what we have available by using the search feature.

In summary

C B D is non-psychoactive on it’s own, and has the ability to mitigate the high experienced with THC.

Cannabidiol and THC come from the same plant, expressing itself in different ways.

Full-Spectrum Cannabidiol products (containing trace levels of THC) have been shown to be more effective than products made from C B D Isolates.

It is incredibly important to source your C B D to ensure its quality.

Sourcing

Leafly’s: “What is C B D and What does this Cannabinoid do?” https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/what-is-cbd

Weedmaps’: “Cannabidiol” https://weedmaps.com/learn/dictionary/cbd

Weedmaps’: “C B D” https://weedmaps.com/learn/cbd

Weedmaps’: “What is C B D used for?” https://weedmaps.com/learn/cbd/what-is-cbd-used-for

High Times’: A Beginners Guide to C B D” https://hightimes.com/guides/a-beginners-guide-to-cbd/

Leafly’s: “How does C B D effect our body” https://www.leafly.com/news/cbd/what-does-cbd-do

Leafly’s “C B D holds promise for Childhood Epilepsy study finds” https://www.leafly.com/news/science-tech/cbd-holds-promise-as-child-epilepsy-treatment-studies-find

Leafly’s “Can C B D Show up in a Drug Test” https://www.leafly.com/news/cbd/does-cbd-show-up-drug-test

Leafly’s: “What kinds of Pain can Cannabidiol Treat” https://www.leafly.com/news/health/cbd-types-of-pain

Frontiers in Philosophy’s: “Axiolytic Effects of Repeated Cannabidiol Treatment in Teenages with Social Anxiety Disorders” https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02466/full

National Library of Medicine, Pub Med’s: 

Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: a Large Case Study” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326553/

Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial”  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22483680/

CBN (cannabinol): The Couch Lock Cannabinoid

Categories: Tags:

What is CBN and what does it do?

CBN Cannabinoid- Cannabinoids and Terpenes Education at Home Grown Apothecary

A beginner's guide to Cannabinol

Often referred to as “The Couchlock Cannabinoid”, CBN (cannabinol) is present in all strains of cannabis and does not provide a high on its own. Although there hasn’t been much research on Canabinol’s sedating effects, one human study did look at this question and found that it may be the combination of CBN and THC that cause the sedative effect.

ORIGINS

CBN is the final terpene produced by the cannabis plant and is created as THC degrades over time. For that reason you see the highest levels of CBN in older strains. For many years the best way to find and take advantage of Cannabinol was to seek out old flower, or to buy some new flower and wait. As research has advanced on the benefits of other cannabinoids, products made from rarer strains have been found to be high in this cannabinoid have begun to emerge on the market.

SCIENCE

Research available is limited (as we are just beginning to study this cannabinoid in depth) but did begin in the 1970s! Very few studies show results for the human body, they are often preformed on mice, making the findings mostly theoretical right now. The only human study done was in the 1970s and pertained to its assistance with sleep. Most of what we have learned personally comes from customer feedback. What research does exists suggests possible aid for things like glaucoma, as an antibacterial, neuro-protective, and appetite stimulant. We have provided links to these research studies below so you can learn more.

THE COUCH-LOCK CANNABINOID

That first study in the 1970s led the way for this cannabinoid to become known as the “Couch-lock Cannabinoid”. While the sample group was small, none of the respondents reported that cannabinol made them tired.

So why does everyone say that it’s sedating?

“Pure Cannabinol is not particularly sedating,” Dr. Ethan Russo, Cannabis Researcher and Neurologist, “But it is typically found in aged cannabis in which the monoterpenoids have evaporated leaving the more sedating oxygenated sesquiterpenoids. This accounts for the discrepancy.”

In other words, that older weed that is boasting high levels of Cannabinol is also high in sedating terpenes. Researchers believe it is the effect of the terpenes rather than the CBN that creates the relaxing effect we find in aged cannabis. They have also suggested that accompanying it with THC is necessary to receive that sedative effect.

One misconception to be aware of is that not all high CBN products will be non-intoxicating, some are mixed with even balanced ratios of THC. While Cannabinol alone will not produce a high, it can actually increase euphoric effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. If you are looking to take advantage of CBN’s benefits without a high, make sure you are using products that don’t contain too much THC!

Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabis & Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary. Photo by Space Face Media
Cannabinoid and Terpene Education at Home Grown Apothecary Photo by Space Face Media

PRACTICAL USE

Each cannabinoid occurs in different levels within different plants and can interact with each person uniquely depending on the synergy of cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant in combination with how your body produces and reacts to them. Learning about the uses of each cannabinoid can greatly increase your success with using cannabis as a medication. Your budtender can be an excellent tool in helping direct you to the strains and intake methods that are right for you. We do offer CBN Products in our store- you can check out our menu here to see what we have available by using the search feature.

In summary

CBN is created at THC degrades over time (most commonly found in older weed)

Cannabinol does not produce a high on it’s own (much like CBD) but can increase euphoric tendencies of THC.

Studies have shown positive results with Cannabinol as an anticonvulsant, anti-biotic, neuroprotectant, appetite stimulator, and an anti-inflammatory.

Sourcing

Leafly’s, “What is CBN (cannabinol) and what are the benefits of this cannabinoid” https://www.leafly.com/news/science-tech/what-is-cbn-and-what-are-the-benefits-of-this-cannabinoid

Weedmaps, “The Difference between CBN vs CBD”  https://weedmaps.com/learn/cbd/cbn-vs-cbd

High Times, “The Ultimate Guide to Cannabinoids in Cannabis”  https://hightimes.com/guides/cannabinoids/

Weedmaps, “CBN, Definition” https://weedmaps.com/learn/dictionary/cannabinol-cbn

Science Directs, “CBN” https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/cannabinol

National Library of Medicine, PubMed:

Antibacterial Cannabinoids of Cannabis  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18681481/

CBN delays onset of ALS https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16183560/

CBN and CBD excerpt opposite effects on rat feeding patterns https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22543671/

Cannabinoids in Health & Disease https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3202504/

Cannabinoids, Inflammation & Fibrosis https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1096/fj.201600646r

Effects of delta9-tetrahydracannabinol and cannabinol in man https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1096/fj.201600646r

Cannabinoid Corner

Categories: Tags:

What is a Cannabinoid?

Big Six Cannabinoids- Cannabinoid Education at Home Grown Apothecary

A beginner's guide to Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids are chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant that interact with receptors in the brain and body to create various effects. Dozens of cannabinoids exist in the cannabis plant, but THC is the one most people know due to its abundance and psycho-active attributes. Some of the other Cannabinoids we have begun to become familiar with include CBD, CBN, CBG, CBC, THC-A, THC-V, and THC-O.

ORIGINS

Why does cannabis produce cannabinoids? Cannabinoids are known as secondary metabolites, which means they are chemicals the plant produces that have no primary role in the plant’s development. However, the leading hypothesis is that secondary metabolites act as an immune system for the plant, fending off predators, parasites, and pests.

SCIENCE & THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM

Because humans (and many other mammals) have receptor systems that cannabinoids bind to, we are able to reap their benefits for both health and recreation This system, called the endocannabinoid system (or ECS), is a group of specialized signaling chemicals (think “keys”), their receptors (think “locks”), and the metabolic enzymes that produce and break them down. The endocannabinoid chemical signals that our bodies naturally put out act on some of the same brain and immune cell receptors (CB1 and CB2) that plant cannabinoids (like CBD and THC) act on.

Put more simply, the plant’s cannabinoids mimic natural compounds in our bodies.

HISTORY

The isolation of THC came from an Israeli chemist by the name of Raphael Mechoulam. In 1964, Mechoulam isolated and synthesized THC from Lebanese hashish, marking the beginning of cannabis research and leading to the discovery of many other cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors throughout the body, and “endocannabinoids” – the THC-like compounds our body naturally produces to maintain stability and health.

PRACTICAL USE

Each cannabinoid occurs in different levels within different plants and can interact with each person uniquely depending on the synergy of cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant in combination with how your body produces and reacts to them. Learning about the uses of each cannabinoid can greatly increase your success with using cannabis as a medication. Your budtender can be an excellent tool in helping direct you to the strains and intake methods that are right for you.

THC - Terpene & Cannabinoid Education at Home Grown Apothecary
CBD - Terpene & Cannabinoid Education at Home Grown Apothecary
CBN- Cannabinol - Terpene & Cannabinoid Education at Home Grown Apothecary
CBG - Terpene & Cannabinoid Education at Home Grown Apothecary
THC-V - Terpene & Cannabinoid Education at Home Grown Apothecary
THC-A - Terpene & Cannabinoid Education at Home Grown Apothecary

Coming Soon: Learn about each cannabinoid individually by clicking on the image above. Stay tuned while we role out this new education section of our website!

 

←Meanwhile- check out this cannabinoid wheel from Leafly! Super informative!

In summary

100s of Cannabinoids exist in each plant.

The first Cannabinoid was discovered in 1964.

Cannabinoids mimic compounds in our bodies and bond to receptors in our natural endocannabinoid system. Think of the cannabinoids as “keys” and our receptors as “locks”.

Using the correct cannabinoid for you will improve efficacy. 

Are you 21 or above?

Please proceed only if you're at least 21